Prostate, the prostate is a walnut-sized exocrine gland that borders the inferior end of the urinary bladder and surrounds the urethra. The prostate produces a large portion of the fluid that makes up semen. This fluid is milky white in color and contains enzymes, proteins, and other chemicals to support and protect sperm during ejaculation. The prostate also contains smooth muscle tissue that can constrict to prevent the flow of urine or semen. Unfortunately the prostate is also particularly susceptible to cancer. Thankfully, dna health testing can tell you whether youre at higher genetic risk of developing prostate cancer due to your brca1 and brca2 genes. Cowpers glands, also known as the bulbourethral glands, are a pair of pea-sized exocrine glands located inferior to the prostate and anterior to the anus.

The seminal vesicles are a pair of lumpy exocrine glands that store and test produce some of the liquid portion of semen. The seminal vesicles are about 2 inches in length and located posterior to the urinary bladder and anterior to the rectum. The liquid produced by the seminal vesicles contains proteins and mucus and has an alkaline pH to help sperm survive in the acidic environment of the vagina. The liquid also contains fructose to feed sperm cells so that they survive long enough to fertilize the oocyte. Ejaculatory duct, the ductus deferens passes through the prostate and joins with the urethra at a structure known as the ejaculatory duct. The ejaculatory duct contains the ducts from the seminal vesicles as well. During ejaculation, the ejaculatory duct opens and expels overlevingskansen sperm and the secretions from the seminal vesicles into the urethra. Urethra, semen passes from the ejaculatory duct to the exterior of the body via the urethra, an 8 to 10 inch long muscular tube. The urethra passes through the prostate and ends at the external urethral orifice located at the tip of the penis. Urine exiting the body from the urinary bladder also passes through the urethra.

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Anatomy of the, pelvis and Perineum - emory University

Conversely, the scrotum contracts to move the testes closer to the bodys core heat when temperatures drop below the ideal range for spermatogenesis. Testes, the 2 testes, also known as testicles, are the male gonads responsible for the production of sperm and testosterone. The spider testes are ellipsoid glandular organs around.5 to 2 inches long and an inch in diameter. Each testis is found inside its own pouch on one side of the scrotum and is connected to the abdomen by a spermatic cord and cremaster muscle. The cremaster muscles contract and relax along with the scrotum to regulate the temperature of the testes. The inside of the testes is divided into small compartments known as lobules. Each lobule contains a section of seminiferous tubule lined with epithelial cells. These epithelial cells contain many stem cells that divide and form sperm cells through the process of spermatogenesis. Epididymis, the epididymis is a sperm storage area that wraps around the superior and posterior edge of the testes. The epididymis is made up of several feet of long, thin tubules that are tightly coiled into a small mass. Sperm produced in the testes moves into the epididymis to mature before being passed on through the male reproductive organs.

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What does fluid in your pelvis mean - things you didn't Know

Click to view Large Image, continued From Above. Anatomy of the etymology male reproductive system. Scrotum, the scrotum is a sac-like organ made of skin and muscles that houses the testes. It is located inferior to the penis in the pubic region. The scrotum is made up of 2 side-by-side pouches with a testis located in each pouch. The smooth muscles that make up the scrotum allow it to regulate the distance between the testes and the rest of the body. When the testes become too warm to support spermatogenesis, the scrotum relaxes to move the testes away from the bodys heat.

Module 5: Pelvis, imaging - hitachi healthcare Americas

tumor often expand the cortex of bone and distrupt the cortex. periosteal reaction including Codman's triangle and onion skin are frequent. mri, a t1-weghted image shows heterogenous low signal intensity, and T2-weighted image shows high signal intensity with several cystic foci and fluid-fluid level with an extraskeletal extension of the tumor, similar to aneurysmal bone cyst. Gross: tumors show dominant cystic architecture in the medullary space. cystic portion of the tumor is filled incompletely with blood clot which is described as "a bag of blood". There is no sclerotic tumor bone formation. Histopathology: tumor contains blood-filled or empty spaces separated by thin septa simulating aneurysmal bone cyst. a few of the tumors are more solid and have smaller cystic spaces.

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Male, reproductive system - innerbody

In patients with 90 response to therapy the dokter survival is poor, usually. Telangiectatic osteosarcoma definition: malignant bone forming tumor characterized by large spaces filled with blood with or without septa. Epidemiology: rare subtype, accounting for less than 4 of all cases of osteosarcoma. It most frequently occurs in the second decade of life but was described in younger patients. male nederland to female ratio.5:1.

Sites of involvement: most tumors involve metaphyseal region of long tubular bones. distal femoral metaphysis is the single most common anatomic site, followed by the upper tibia and proximal humerus or proximal femur. Clinical findings: similar to conventional osteosarcoma. Characteristic clinical finding of this tumor is pathological fracture (1/4 of the cases because of massive bone destruction. Imaging: purely lytic, large bone destruction without distinct surrounding bony sclerosis. tumor commonly show extension into soft tissue. most lesions are located in metaphysis, and ususally extend into the epiphysis.

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Fibroblastic osteosarcoma: A high grade spindle-cell malignancy with sometimes minimal amount of osseous matrix with or without cartilage. In general, the overall histological appearance is similar to fibrosarcoma or pleomorphic undifferentiated sarcoma (malignant fibrous histiocytoma). Genetics: Loss of heterozygosity of chromosome arm 3q, 13q, 17p, and 18q most frequent. Amplification at 1q21-23 and 17p are frequent findings in conventional osteosarcoma. Prognosis: Untreated, conventional osteosarcoma is fatal.

Aggresive local growth and rapid hematogenous systemic dissemination are bad prognostic features. Although metastases may affect many sites, pulmonary metastases are the most frequent site of clinically significant systemic disease. In children the treatment of conventional osteosarcoma is tailored to the location, size and stage of the tumor. Eradication of the primary tumor and the elimination of any matastases is the goal of therapy. Limb salvage resection is the convention for appendicular tumors, and surgical excision in combination with radiation is employed for tumors that are not resectable entirely with negative margins. Adjuvant chemotherapy is usually employed in the preoperative setting and continued after surgical resection. Survival is directly related to response to pre-operative therapy. In those patients whose tumors have 90 tumor necrosis, long-term survival is generally 80-90.

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Conventional osteosarcoma can also produce varying amounts of cartilage and/or fibrous tissue. Many investigators further subdivide conventional osteosarcoma in terms of predominant matrix. This divides conventional sarcoma into three subtypes: osteoblastic (50 chondroblastic (25 and fibroblastic (25) osteosarcoma. Osteoblastic osteosarcoma: Bone products and/or osteoid are the predominant matrix. The extremes of matrix production are thin arborising osteoid to dense, compact osteoid and bone (sclerotic). Chondroblastic osteosarcoma: Chondroid matrix is predominant. It tends to be high grade hyaline cartilage, which is intimately associated, and randomly mixed, with non-chondroid elements.

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Coronary, health, disease - pubMed

A sudden fracture through destructive mass may be found. Imaging: Osteosarcoma has extremely variable radiographic appearances; Conventional tumors present as a large, destructive, poorly defined, mixed lytic and blastic masses accompanied by cortical destruction and tumor cell extension into soft tissue. Tumor/periosteal interaction may lead to variety of manifestations secondary to periosteal elevation (e.g. Codman triangle) and periosteal reactive bone formation. Occasionally the tumor may demonstrate perpendicular or radiating striations called "sunburst". Ct and mri may be helpfull in delineating the extent of the tumor preoperatively. Gross: Osteosarcoma is often a large (over 5 cm metaphyseally centered, fleshy or hard tumor which may contain cartilage. It frequently transgresses the cortex and is associated with a soft tissue mass. Histopathology: Presents as highly anaplastic, pleomorphic tumor in which the tumor cells may be: epithelioid, plasmacytoid, fusiform, ovoid, small round cells, clear cells, mono- or multinucleated giant cells, or spindle cells producing osteoid.

Sites of involvement: Conventional osteosarcoma haemangioom shows a profound propensity for involvement of the long bones of the appendicular skeleton; in particular, the distal femur, proximal tibia, and proximal humerus. Within the long bones the tumor is mostly centered in metaphysis (90) followed by diaphysis (9 and rarely in epiphysis. Although the long bones remain the most frequent site of involvement, the non-long bone (i.e, jaws, pelvis, spine, and skull) involvement tends to increase with age. Clinical features: Classic presentation of conventional osteosarcoma typically is progressively enlarging, painfull mass. Deep seated and boring in nature, the pain is frequently noted months prior to diagnosis, and usually increases in intensity over time, eventually becoming unbearable. Skin overlying the tumor may be warm, eyrthematous, edematous, with prominent engorged veins. Large tumors may restrict range of motion,decrease musculoskeletal function,produce joint effusion and, in advances cases, result in weight loss and cachexia.

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Conventional osteosarcoma, definition: Primary intramedullary high grade malignant sarcoma in which neoplastic cells produce osteoid. Epidemiology: Most common primary non-hematopoietic malignancy of bone. Its incidence in usa is 4-5 per milion individuals with new cases diagnosed annually which accounts for approximatelly 20 of all primary malignant cell tumors. It most frequently occurs in second decade of life with 60 of tumors occuring stripping in patients younger than 25 years. Although 30 occuring in patients over 40 years of age, the predisposing condition should always be considered in older patients (e.g. Paget's disease, of bone, post radiation sarcoma). Male to female ratio 3:2. Osteosarcoma in children 5 years and younger is very uncommon, and they account for less than 2 of osteosarcomas in the pediatric population.

Fluid in pelvis male
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